Data scrubbing

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Several methods are available for the imputation of missing values [25]. A summary of currently used methods is presented in Table 3.3.

Figure 3.6. Missing data imputation methods.

For example, in the Heart Failure End-of-life project, the following fallback sequence was used to backfill missing first diagnosis dates:

  1. most recent Pacemaker Date,
  2. first AICD date,
  3. most recent ejection fraction measurement date,
  4. most recent cardiologist visit date,
  5. most recent contact date.